In VCM, blood vessels are represented schematically by two horizontal
lines. Disorders of the circulatory system are shown in a red square
with two lines on the right, symbolizing the blood vessel supplying
Circulatory system disorder
Coronary disease (vascular disease in the heart)
Cerebrovascular disease (vascular disease of the CNS)
Blood pressure-related disorders are represented by adding a double
arrow in the blood vessel, symbolizing the pressure:
Blood pressure-related disorders
Hypertension (increased pressure)
Elements in the blood are shown between the two horizontal lines.
For blood cells, a white hollow circle represents red blood cells,
a solid white circle represents white blood cells, and a rectangle
represents platelets. In addition, the pictogram for white blood cells
is also used for immunity, and the one for platelets, for clotting.
The substances circulating in the blood are represented similarly:
Plasma concentration of a drug’s active agent
Monitoring of the plasma concentration of a drug’s active agent
Renal excretion is represented by a small kidney with the elements
or products excreted shown exiting:
Renal excretion disorder
Drug renal excretion
Central nervous system, brain function, psychology and behavior
Degenerative brain disease
Parkinson syndrome, extrapyramidal disorders
Using several shape modifiers
Several shape modifiers can be used together to represent certain
disorders, for example:
What do the following icons mean?
(1) Answer: Submit
(2) Answer: Submit
(3) Answer: Submit
(4) Answer: Submit
(5) Answer: Submit
(6) Answer: Submit
(7) Answer: Submit
(8) Answer: Submit
The following text describes the properties of a hypothetical antihypertensive
This drug is strictly contraindicated for patients with heart failure.
This drug should not be prescribed for patients with unstable angina.
This medicine should not be associated with mefloquine.
This medicine should not be associated with anti-vitamin K.
When taking this medication, it is advised to monitor blood pressure regularly and conduct ECG investigations every two years.
For elderly patients, it is recommended to reduce the dose.
For patients with renal insufficiency, it is recommended to reduce the dose.
In cases of gastrointestinal bleeding, the treatment should immediately be stopped.
Answer the questions about the following clinical cases:
Case #1: Mr. X is 73 years old, he is being treated for colon cancer,
and by dietary measures for type II diabetes. He also has hypertension.
Can you prescribe him the anti-hypertensive drug whose properties
are summarized in the text above?
(9-a) YesWrong answer!
(9-b) Yes with a dose reductionWrong answer!
(9-c) Yes with adapted monitoringWrong answer!
(9-d) Yes with both a dose reduction and adapted monitoringRight answer!
(9-e) NoWrong answer!
Case #2: Ms. Y is 42 years old. He takes mefloquine regularly when
traveling for professional reasons. His blood pressure is abnormal.
Can you prescribe the anti-hypertensive drug whose properties are
summarized in the text above?
(10-a) YesWrong answer!
(10-b) Yes with a dose reductionWrong answer!
(10-c) Yes with adapted monitoringWrong answer!
(10-d) Yes with both a dose reduction and adapted monitoringWrong answer!