In lesson 1, we have seen how to represent simple disorders and symptoms.
To represent disorders (or symptoms) with more details, VCM distinguishes
two types of disorder: generic disorders that can be found at several
sites, and disorders specific to a given site.
Disorders that can be found on several locations
Some disorders can involve several anatomico-functional locations,
or even the whole body. For example: infectious diseases (including
pulmonary infection, urinary infection), tumor processes and cancers
(lung cancer, intestinal cancer), hemorrhages (cerebral hemorrhage,
digestive hemorrhage, hemorrhage without more precision), insufficiencies
(cardiac failure, renal failure, hepatic failure), and other.
For representing these disorders, the shape of the red
square is enriched by a shape modifier that gives additional details
about the disorder. These shape modifiers can be combined with the
pictogram for anatomico-functional location (see lesson 1). Here is
the list of shape modifiers:
Hyperthyroidism (hyper-functioning of the thyroid gland)
Decrease, hypo-functioning, failure
Cardiac failure (cardiac function insufficiency)
Renal failure (renal function insufficiency)
End-stage renal failure
Inflammatory intestinal disease
Coronary disease (vascular disease located in the heart)
Obstructed blood vessel, embolism, thrombosis
Myocardial infarction (obstructed blood vessel in the heart)
Metrorrhagia (hemorrhage located in uterus)
Peptic ulcer (ulcer in the stomach)
Hepatic metabolism disorder
Viral infectious disease
Bacterial infectious disease
Fungal infectious disease
Cutaneous mycosis cutanis
Parasitic infectious disease
Cancer of the urinary bladder
Benign tumor, cyst
Benign tumor of the prostate
Autoimmune cerebral disease
Intoxication, chemical-induced disease
Disease or symptom caused by a treatment, iatrogenic disease
Disease or symptom caused by a medical procedure
Disease or symptom caused by a drug
Disease or symptom caused by an irradiation
Disorders specific to a given location
Other disorders or symptoms are specific to a given location, for
example heart rhythm disorder are specific to the cardiac system.
Similarly, vomiting is specific to the stomach.
For these disorders, a specific pictogram is used, which is based
on the anatomo-functional location but is modified to give additional
details. For example:
Parkinson disease (central nervous system disorder + tremor)
Cerebral degeneration (including Alzheimer disease, central nervous
system disorder + holes)
Osteoporosis (bone disorder + holes in bone)
The two methods for enriching disorder icons can be combined, for
Tachycardia (increase of heart rhythm)
Epilepsy (increase of cerebral activity)
Depression (decrease of mood)
Insomnia (decrease of sleep)
Asthma / chronic obstructive lung disease (functional insufficiency
of the bronchial tubes)
VCM has pictograms and shapes for only the most important and common
disorders. Disorders that are too rare or too specific are represented
by a more general icon, for example “abnormality of the cardiac
septum” is represented as a cardiac
disorder without further details.
What is the meaning of the following icons? To answer, click on the
rectangular box to the right of “Answer :”,
type your response and then click on “Submit”.
You should provide the exact answer, so be careful with the spelling!
Don’t worry if there are issues with synonyms or misspellings:-)
(1) Answer: Submit
(2) Answer: Submit
(3) Answer: Submit
(4) Answer: Submit
(5) Answer: Submit
(6) Answer: Submit
(7) Answer: Submit
(8) Answer: Submit
(9) Answer: Submit
(10) Answer: Submit
The following text, with VCM icon in the margin, describes the properties
of a hypothetical antihypertensive treatment:
This drug is contraindicated for patients presenting cardiac failure.
This drug should not be prescribed in cases of heart rhythm disorders.
This drug is formally contraindicated in case of articular inflammation.
This drug is contraindicated for people suffering from cystitis.
This drug should not be prescribed to patients presenting depressive symptoms.
Now, reply to the following questions about the clinical cases described:
Case #1: M. X is 63 years old, he is currently being treated for
a malignant tumor of the large intestine, and with a non-drug treatment
for a type 2 diabetes. His blood pressure is abnormally high. Can
you prescribe him the drug described in the text above?
(11-a) YesRight answer!
(11-b) NoWrong answer!
Case #2: Ms Y is 42 years old, she is currently receiving treatment
for depression. She also suffers from hypertension. Can you prescribe
her the drug described in the text above?